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APA 7 Referencing

DVD, video, motion picture: Including ClickView

  • The Director is credited as the author.  If there is no director given, someone in a similar role can be credited as the author.
  • After the title, include information about the type of film e.g. Film, in square brackets. e.g. [Film]
  • If there is further information that may be useful  this can be added in the square brackets as well.  e.g. [Film; extended ed.].

(Jackson, 2011).


Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on

          DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 342).  

Television series

  • If the series covered several years, use a dash to separate the years.  e.g. (2008-2016).
  • If the series is still screening, replace the final year with the word present.  e.g. (2012-present).


(Simon et al., 2002-2008). 

Simon, D., Colesberry, R. F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown

                  Deadline Productions, HBO.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 343). 

Television: Single episode from a series

  • Include the season and episode numbers in brackets after the title of the episode.
  • Put the name of the series in italics, not the name of the episode.
  • Include the writer and director for the episode as the author along with their role in brackets after each name.

(Barris, 2017).


Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12). [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J.

              Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Doggins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive producers), Black-ish. Wilmore films;

              Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 343). 

TED Talk

  • If the TED Talk comes from the TED's website, the author is the name of the speaker.
  • If the TED talk comes from YouTube, the owner of the YouTube account is listed as the author.

Giertz, S. (2018, April). Why you should make useless things [Video]. TED Conferences.


(APA manual, 2020, pp. 343-344). 


  • Author - the person or group who uploaded the video.
  • Use this example for any streaming video.
  • Remember to include the streaming site name after the title.

(Cutts, 2017).

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 344). 

Music recording: Whole album

Classical Works

  • Name - use the composer
  • Date - use the publication date for the version you listened to.  At the end of the reference, in brackets, add the date of the original publication.
  • In square brackets after the title, include the format and name of the individual or group who recorded the version.
  • If you wish to add other relevant information, this may be included after the format separated by a semi-colon. 
  • A url may be added at the end of the reference if this is the only way the recording can be accessed.

(Bach, 1721/2010).

Bach, J. S. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St

                 Martin in the Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721).


Other Works

  • Author - name of the recording artist or group.

(Midler, 2010).

Midler, G. (2010). Memories of you [Album]. Warner Music UK.

(APA manual, 2020, pp.344-345).

Music recording: Individual song from album

  • Include both the title of the song and the title of the album in your reference list.
  • The title of the album is italicised in your reference list
  • If the song has no associated album, omit this section from the reference.
  • Include the URL if this is the only way to access the recording.

Classical example:

(Beethoven, 1804/2012).

Beethoven, L. van. (2010). Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [song recorded by Staatskapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven:

          Complete symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804).


Other example:

(Lamar, 2010).

‚ÄčLamar, K. (2017). Humble [Song]. On Damn. Aftermath Entertainment; Interscope Records; Top Dawg Entertainment.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 345).

Podcast: Audio or video

  • Author - host of the podcast or the executive producers and their role in brackets.
  • Specify the type of podcast in square brackets.
  • If the URL is unknown or it is accessed via an app, omit the URL.

(Verdantam, 2015-present).

Verdantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.     


(APA manual, 2020, p. 345).

Podcast episode

  • Author - host of the podcast or the executive producers and their role in brackets.
  • Specify the type of podcast in square brackets.
  • If the URL is unknown or it is accessed via an app, omit the URL.

(Glass, 2011).

Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ

                   Chicago. https://www/\

(APA manual, 2020, p. 345).