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APA 7 Referencing

DVD, video, motion picture: Including ClickView

The Director is credited as the author.  If there is no director given, someone in a similar role can be credited as the author.

After the title, include information about the type of film e.g. Film, in square brackets. e.g. [Film]

If there is further information that may be useful  this can be added in the square brackets as well.  e.g. [Film; extended ed.].


(Jackson, 2011).

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on

          DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 342).  

Television series

If the series covered several years, use a dash to separate the years.  e.g. (2008-2016).

If the series is still screening, replace the final year with the word present.  e.g. (2012-present).


(Simon et al., 2002-2008). 

Simon, D., Colesberry, R. F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown

                  Deadline Productions, HBO.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 343). 

Television: Single episode from a series

Include the season and episode numbers in brackets after the title of the episode.

Put the name of the series in italics, not the name of the episode.

Include the writer and director for the episode as the author along with their role in brackets after each name.


(Barris, 2017).

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12). [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J.

              Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Doggins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive producers), Black-ish. Wilmore films;

              Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 343). 

TED Talk

If the TED Talk comes from the TED's website, the author is the name of the speaker.

If the TED talk comes from YouTube, the owner of the YouTube account is listed as the author.


(Giertz, 2018).

Giertz, S. (2018, April). Why you should make useless things [Video]. TED Conferences.


(APA manual, 2020, pp. 343-344). 


Author - the person or group who uploaded the video.

Use this example for any streaming video.

Remember to include the streaming site name after the title.


(Cutts, 2017).

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 344). 

Music recording: Whole album

Classical Works

  • Name - use the composer
  • Date - use the publication date for the version you listened to.  At the end of the reference, in brackets, add the date of the original publication.
  • In square brackets after the title, include the format and name of the individual or group who recorded the version.
  • If you wish to add other relevant information, this may be included after the format separated by a semi-colon. 
  • A url may be added at the end of the reference if this is the only way the recording can be accessed.


(Bach, 1721/2010).

Bach, J. S. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St

                 Martin in the Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721).


Example of Other Works:

Author - name of the recording artist or group.

(Midler, 2010).

Midler, G. (2010). Memories of you [Album]. Warner Music UK.

(APA manual, 2020, pp.344-345).

Music recording: Individual song from album

Include both the title of the song and the title of the album in your reference list.

The title of the album is italicised in your reference list

If the song has no associated album, omit this section from the reference.

Include the URL if this is the only way to access the recording.

Classical example:

(Beethoven, 1804/2012).

Beethoven, L. van. (2010). Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [song recorded by Staatskapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven:

          Complete symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804).


Other example:

(Lamar, 2010).

‚ÄčLamar, K. (2017). Humble [Song]. On Damn. Aftermath Entertainment; Interscope Records; Top Dawg Entertainment.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 345).

Podcast: Audio or video

Author - host of the podcast or the executive producers and their role in brackets.

Specify the type of podcast in square brackets.

If the URL is unknown or it is accessed via an app, omit the URL.


(Verdantam, 2015-present).

Verdantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.     


(APA manual, 2020, p. 345).

Podcast episode

Author - host of the podcast or the executive producers and their role in brackets.

Specify the type of podcast in square brackets.

If the URL is unknown or it is accessed via an app, omit the URL.


(Glass, 2011).

Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ

                   Chicago. https://www/\

(APA manual, 2020, p. 345).