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APA 7 Referencing

What is the reference list?

All references or information sources cited in any written work (i.e. essays, reports, research papers, etc.) need to be listed in a reference list.

The reference list provides all the details necessary for the person reading and/or marking the assignment to locate, retrieve and check any information source cited.

An accurate and properly constructed reference list provides credibility to the written work it accompanies.

Note:  Everything you have cited in text (expect personal communications) appears in your reference list.

           Everything that appears in your reference list will have been cited in your text!

           If you have read a source but not cited it, DO NOT include it in your reference list.

(APA manual, 2020, Chapter 9).

Elements of a reference

The four elements of a  reference are:

Who:  Author - the personal or group responsible for the work.

When: Date - when the work was published.

What :  Title of book, article, or web document.

Where: Retrieval information - publisher, journal or web information

(APA manual, 2020, p. 283).

Basic rules for the reference list

1.  Place the reference list on a separate page at the end of your assignment headed References.

2.  Double space entries.

3Arrange in alphabetical order of the author's last names.

4.  Author surname, initial. initial. Example:  Bloggs, J. J. 

5. If there is more than one work by the same author, order them by publication date - oldest to newest

    (i.e. a 2004 publication appears before a 2008 publication).

6.  Use "&" instead of "and" when listing multiple authors of a source.

7.  Up to 20 authors, include all names.   21 or more authors, include first 19 ... last author.

8.  The first line of the reference list entry is left-hand justified, while all subsequent lines are consistently indented.

9.  Capitalise only the first work of the title and of the subtitle (if there is one), plus any proper names i.e. only those words    

     that would normally be capitalised.

10.  Italics:    Book - the title of the book 

                    Journal article - the title of the journal (not the article)

                    Web document - the title of the web document

11. Missing information: 

      No author - begin with the title.

      No date - use n.d.

      No title - describe the work in square brackets

      See (APA manual, 2020, p. 284) for chart of what to do when information is missing

12. Do not create separate lists for each type of information source.  All sources are arranged alphabetically in one list.

 (APA manual, 2020, pp. 303-307).

Sample page from a reference list