Round brackets (parentheses).
Round brackets are used when abbreviating a term or group within the text.
The abbreviation must be written out in full the first time.
First time: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term used to encompass several conditions...
Second time: One of the symptoms of COPD is breathlessness.
NOTE: Abbreviations should generally only be used for recognised terms and must be able to be understood by the reader.
(APA manual, 2020, p. 189)
Square brackets are used to abbreviate groups or corporate authors or to add information within citations.
First use includes both the full name and the abbreviation.
Example: Health in New Zealand is delivered by a complex set of groups (Ministry of Health [MOH], 2019).
Second and subsequent citations use the abbreviation only.
These groups include 20 local boards (MOH, 2016).
Note: In the reference list, the group or corporate author are written out in full.
(APA manual, 2020, p. 160).
Cleland, S. (2019). I102 technical support fundamentals [PowerPoint slides]. Moodle.
(APA manual, 2020, p. 347).
(T. Nguyen, personal communication, February 24, 2020).
(APA manual, 2020, p. 260).