Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA 7 Referencing

What information to put in citations

How should I structure an in text citation for a book?

Whether you use a direct quote (the author's words) or paraphrase (rewritten in your own words), you should acknowledge the source of the information or ideas.

How do I structure a reference for a book?


1. One to two author(s) or editor(s) surname appears first followed by initials

     Examples: (Bloggs, 2019).  OR (Bloggs & Jones, 2017)

    Three or more authors or editors use surname of first author, followed by et al.

     Example: (Kessler et al., 2003).

(APA manual, 2020, pp. 266 and 285-289).


2.  Year of publication in brackets

      Example: (2010).

      If there is no date, use n.d.

      Example: (n.d.).

(APA manual, 2020, pp. 285-291).


3.  The Title is italicized. 

      Example: Operations management: Sustainability and supply chain management.

      Notes:  Capitalise only the first word of the title, subtitle (if any), and proper names. 

                    Use a colon (:) between the title and subtitle whether or not there is a colon used on the book itself.

(APA manual, 2020, pp. 291- 293).


4.  Include the edition number in brackets after the title or subtitle

     Examples: (3rd ed.).

                         (Rev. ed.).

      Note: no full stop after the title if there is an edition.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 291).

  5.  Publisher's Name.  Provide this as briefly as possible.

  • Do not abbreviate the name of the publisher. Use the spelling and capitalization as it appears

                  on the book.

  • Do not use terms such as Ltd, Co., or Inc.  

       Example:   Berkeley, CA: New Riders.

       - Do use terms such as Books, Publishers, or Press.

         Example:  Oxford University Press.

  • When the publisher and author are the same, do not include publisher name after the title.

(APA manual, 2020, pp. 295-296).


6.  If the book has a DOI or URL, include this at the end of the reference.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 296).


Look in the appropriate box below to see how you should cite and reference your source depending on the number of authors the book has.

One or two authors

Cite all the names of the authors

Example 1

Water is a necessary part of every person's diet and of all the nutrients a body needs to function, it requires more water each day than any other nutrient (Whitney & Rofles, 2011).

Example 2

Whitney and Rolfes (2011) state the body requires many nutrients to function but highlight that water is of greater importance than any other nutrient.

Example 3

Water is an essential element of anyone's diet and Whitney and Rolfes (2011) emphasise it is more important than any other nutrient.

Then in your reference list:

Whitney, E., & Rolfes, S. (2011). Understanding nutrition (12th ed.).  Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 286).

3 to 20 Authors

Each time you cite a source that has 3 to 20 authors cite only the last name of the first author followed by et al.


Research can be defined as a systematic method of creating new knowledge or a way to verify existing knowledge (Watson et al., 2008).   

Then in your reference list:

Include all authors.

Watson, R., McKenna, H., Cowman S., & Keady, K. (Eds.). (2008). Nursing research:  Designs and methods.

                        Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

Note:  The authors were identified as editors hence (Eds.) is placed after the last name.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 286).

21 or more authors

Each time you cite a source that has 21 or more authors cite only the last name of the first author followed by et al.

In text citation example:

The general public, as well as healthcare personnel, all need education in how to prevent infection (Lemone et al., 2011).


Then in your reference list:

List the first 19 names ... last name.


Nixon, C. A., Lorenz, R. D., Achterberg, R. K., Buch A., Coll, P., Clark, R. N., Courtin, R., Hayes, A., Iess L.,  Johnson,

            R. E.,  Lopes, R. M. C., Mastrogiuseppe, M., Mandt, K.,  Mitchell, D. G., Raulin, F., Rymer, A. M., Todd Smith, H.,

            Solomonidou, A., Sotin, C., … Yelle,  R. V. (2018). Titan’s cold case files: Outstanding questions after Cassini-

             Huygens. Planetary and Space Science, 55, 50, 50-72.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 286).

Groups of authors

Corporations, Associations, government agencies and other groups that serve as authors are usually spelled out in full each time they are used.  If the group has a well known abbreviation, that may be used in second or subsequent citations.

In text citation example:

First in text citation:                        (Ministry of Health [MOH], 2007).

Second & subsequent citations:     (MOH, 2007).

Then in your reference list:

Ministry of Health. (2007). Looking at long-term residential care in a rest home or hospital:  What you need to know.

Remember:  if the author and publisher are the same, the publisher name is not included.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 268).

Books with several editions

Where a book has an edition, add edition number after the title and before the full stop.

Example: The small business book: A New Zealand guide for the 21st century (6th ed.).

Note:  The edition number is always a numeral even if the edition number on the book is written in words.

 Example:   On the spine of Foundations of sport and exercise psychology is shown as "Sixth Edition". In your citation and reference list, this would be listed as (6th ed.).

(APA manual, 2020, p. 291). 

Edited book

For an edited book, place (Ed.) after the author(s) name(s).

Example: Aspinall, V. (Ed.). (2014). Clinical procedures in veterinary nursing (3rd ed.). Elsevier.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 287).

Chapter from an edited book

The title of the chapter as well as the title of the book are included in the reference.

  • The in-text citation references the chapter author(s), not the editor(s) of the book itself.
  • The title of the book is in italics
  • The initials of the editors of the book come before the surnames.
  • The page numbers of the chapter are included after the title.


In-text citation:

(Palmer, 2007)     

Then in your reference list:

Palmer, F. (2007). Treaty principles and Maori sport:  Contemporary issues.  In C. Collins & S. Jackson (Eds.), Sport

               in Aotearoa/New Zealand society (2nd ed., pp. 307-334). Thomson.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 326 ).



(Sadun et al., 2011).

Then in your reference list:

Sadun, E., Grothaus, M., & Sande, S. (2011). Taking your iPad 2 to the max (2nd ed.). Apress.



 (APA manual, 2020, p. 321).