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APA 7 Referencing

One work by one author

1.  Citations in brackets (parenthetical)

If the citation is parenthetical, the last name of the author and the year of publication are placed in brackets at the end of the sentence.


Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public's perception of expert consensus on an issue (Koehler, 2016). (APA manual, 2020, p 262-263)

2.  Citations that are part of the narrative

Rule 1:  ‚ÄčWhen the citation is part of the narrative, place the year in brackets after the name

             Example A:    According to Jones (2013) ...

             Example B:    Jones (2013) states that ...  (APA manual, 2020, p 263).

Rule 2:  When the author and date are within the narrative:

              In 2016, Koehler noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage (APA manual, 2020, p.263)    

Rule 3: The rules for citing an author more than once in a paragraph are quite complex: When citing the same author and item in the same paragraph, omit the date for subsequent usage.

                Koehler (2010) experimentally examined how journalistic coverage influences public perception of the level of agreement among experts.  Koehler provided participants with quotations from real reviews ...  (APA manual, 2020, p. 265).

Citing multiple works by the same author

Rule One:  When citing multiple works by the same author:

  • arrange by year of publication
  • give the author surname once
  • n.d., then chronological order, then in-press.

Examples:  (Department of Veterans Affairs, n.d., 2017a, 2017b, 2019).

                    Zhou (n.d., 2000, 2016, in-press)

(APA manual, 2020, p. 263).


Rule Two:  If the authors have been abbreviated using et al., place citations in chronological order.

Example:  (Carraway et al., 2013, 2014, 2019).

(APA manual, 2020, p. 263).


Rule Three:  If sources are cited within the narrative they can appear in any order.

Example:  Sulman (2018), Gutierrez (2012, 2017), and Medina and Reyes (2019) examined...

(APA manual, 2020, p. 264).

Citing the same author and same date

When citing works with the same author and same date add a lowercase letter after the year.


(Judge & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012a).

(Judge & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012b).

(APA manual, 2020, p. 267).

Citing multiple works by different authors

Rule One:  When citing more than one work by different authors:

  • place in alphabetical order
  • separate with semicolon


(Gabbett, Jenkins & Abernethy, 2010; Ministry of Health, 2019; Weiss & Taruskin, 1984; World Health Organisation, 2019).

(APA manual, 2020, p. 263).

Citing multiple authors with the same surname

When citing authors with the same surname but different initials, include the first initial:

Example:  J.M. Taylor & Neimeyer, 2015; T. Taylor, 2014).

(APA manual, 2020, p. 267).

Citing a secondary source

Where possible use original material.  However, if the information you wish to use is cited by another author, acknowledge the source you have read, showing it is a secondary source.  

Rule 1:  Within the text, use the words "as cited in" to indicate this is a secondary source.  

Rule 2:  In the reference list include the author and details of the source you actually read.


(Fawcett, 2005, as cited in Polit & Beck, 2008)

Rule 3:  If the date of the original source is unknown leave it out of the citation.


Fawcett (as cited in Polit & Beck, 2008) outlined the four main concepts...

Then in the reference list: Reference the source you used.


Polit, D. F. & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing research:  Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice

          (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

(APA manual, 2020, p. 258).