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APA 7 Referencing

Gray Literature


Gray literature includes:

  • government reports
  • technical reports
  • research reports
  • press releases
  • codes of ethics
  • grants
  • policy briefs
  • issue briefs

Gray literature may include original research but are usually not peer reviewed.

When referencing gray literature, put a description of the document in square brackets after the title e.g. [Policy brief].

If the author and publisher are the same, omit the publishers name.

(APA Manual, 2020, pp. 329-331).

Report by a government agency or other organisation

Intext citation:

(Te Tāhū o te Turu Ministry of Justice, 2022/23).

Then in your reference list:

Te Tāhū o te Turu Ministry of Justice. (2022/23). Kia toipoto: Pay gaps action plan.   


Report by individual authors at a government agency or other organisation

In-text citation:

(Su'a-Tavilla et al., 2020).

Then in your reference list:

Su'a-Tuvilla, A., Pereira, T. B., & Manuleleua, M. T. (2020). The experience of pacific women in Auckland during and   

             post the COVID-19 pandemic.  National Advisory Council on the Employment of Women.


Report prepared for a government agency, published as part of a series

If there are individual named authors, add their name(s) in the author's place and include the government department or organisation as the publisher, after the title of the document.


In-text citation:

(Ministry of Education, 2023).

Then in your reference list:

Ministry of Education. (2023). Funding settings for services affected by Auckland floods and Cyclone Gabrielle. (He Pānui

        Kōhungahunga, Issue 78). 



Report by a task force, working group, or other group

  • Capitalise the name of the task force when it appears in the reference.

In-text citation:

(2025 Taskforce, 2010). 

Then in your reference list:

2025 Taskforce. (2010). Focusing on growth. Te Tai Ōhanga The Treasury.     

Policy Brief

In-text citation:

(KiwiRail & New Zealand Railways Corporation, 2022)

Then in your reference list:

KiwiRail & New Zealand Railways Corporation. (2022). Entity Form Review [Policy brief]. Ministry of



Press Release

In-text citation:

(Tinetti, 2023, April 6).

Then in your reference list:

Tinetti, J. (2023, April 6). Continued focus on improving the lives of Kiwi kids [Press release].