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APA 7 Referencing

Personal communication

This refers to letters, including email, interviews, telephone conversations and discussions on placement or work experience.

Personal communications are cited in text only

Include both the day and the year in the citation

Note: Do not include in the reference list.


In text citation example:

No-tillage technologies have revolutionised the way arable farmers manage their farming operation and practices (W. R. Ritchie, personal communication, September 30, 2014).

​Refer to APA manual, 2020, p 260 for further information.