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APA 7 Referencing

General rules

  • Quoting directly from a work should be done sparingly, in order to emphasise or stress a point in your assignment. 
  • When using a quote, it must be copied exactly as written in the original work incuding any punctuation or incorrect spelling.
  • When using a quote, include the author's last name, year of publication and page number(s) where the quote appears. 

Refer to the APA manual, 2020, p 270-278 for further information.

 

Short quote: Less than 40 words

To indicate a short quote (less than 40 words), enclose the quotation within double quotation marks.

In text citation example:

"Self-directed learning is also a term with which you will become familiar as you study in Australia or New Zealand  Students are expected to take responsibility for their own learning and organise their own study" (Hally, 2009, p. 7).

OR

Hally (2009) noted that "self-directed is also a term with which you will become familiar as you study in Australia or New Zealand" (p.7).

Then in your reference list:

Hally, M. B. (2009). A guide for international nursing students in Australia and New Zealand. Elsevier.

Refer to the APA manual (2020, p. 271-272) for further information.

Longer quote: 40 words or more

For a quote that is 40 words or more: 

  • Begin on a new line
  • Indent the entire quote.
  • Include it in your essay as a freestanding piece of text or block. 
  • Do not use quotation marks.
  • Double-space the entire quote.
  • At the end of the quote, include the author's name, year of publication and page number(s). 

In text citation example:

Principle-based teaching and principle-based learning are important in nursing, particularly as they relate

to clinical skills.  Clinical skills are usually taught according to principles, and this means that the student learns key principles

associated with the skill, and then applies those principles to the actual performance of the skill (Hally, 2009, p. 6).

Then in your reference list:

Hally, M. B. (2009). A guide for international nursing students in Australia and New Zealand. Elsevier.

Refer to the APA manual (2020, p. 272) for further information.

Quotation from online resources without page numbers

For quotes from online sources without page numbers:

  • Provide the author, year and page number within brackets (p.   ).
  • If there is no page number, use a paragraph number. (para.   )
  • If a paragraph number could confuse the reader, consider including a section heading e.g. (discussion section).

In text citation example:

"The WTN exists to "encourage serendipity" --the happy accident of colliding ideas and new relationships that cause the biggest breakthroughs for individuals and institutions" (World Technology Network, 2014, para. 3).

Then in your reference list:

World Technology Network. (2014). About the World Technology Network. http://www.wtn.net/about

Refer to the APA manual (2020, p. 273) for further information.

Quotation from audiovisual resource

  • In the in-text citation, include a starting time of the quote.

Social service workers "need to have excellent verbal communication skills" (Cumsby, 2020, 4:35).

Then in your reference list, you would reference the audiovisual resource as a whole (see the audiovisual tab).

Refer to the APA manual (2020, p. 274) for further information

To change a quote

To shorten a quote:

Use an ellipsis (...) with a space before and after the ellipsis to show where parts of the quote have been left out.

Example:

De Backer and Fisher (2010) noted that "those who read gossip magazines, watch gossip-related television shows, or read gossip articles from internet sites ... may feel guilty about wasting their time on a leisure pursuit" (p. 421).

If you wish to join two sentences, complete the first sentence with a full stop, add a space, then use an ellipsis, i.e. (. ...).

 

To add material:

To add information to clarify the meaning, put the added words in square brackets.

Example:

De Backer and Fisher (2010) noted that "those [adults] who read gossip magazines...."

 

To add emphasis:

To add emphasis to a word in a quote, use italics.

Example:

"They emphasized that "it is important to remember that gossip helped our ancestors survive [emphasis added], ... 

APA manual, 2020, p. 275).